Die casting is an efficient process to produce complex parts in large quantities. As a result, it is an effective way to create parts that are cost-effective and of high quality. However, it is important for a die casting company to understand the various parts that go into the process, so as to optimize the efficiency of their operations.
The below paragraphs are a list of common OEM parts that are die cast.
What is Die Casting?
Die casting is a form of casting in which metal alloys such as aluminum, zinc, and magnesium are melted and poured into molds at high temperatures. Because the molten metal is poured into the mold, it is characterized by its capacity to accommodate very accurate and complex shapes, depending on the original mold.
It’s also cost-effective because it’s designed for mass production. Aluminum is one of the most lightweight materials used in die casting and has high durability, recyclability, energy efficiency, and resource efficiency.
Die Casting Process
The four most significant die-casting processes are melting / molten metal treatment, casting work, post-treatment work, and inspection.
- Melting / molten metal treatment
The die casting process begins with the melting of the casting alloy, which produces molten metal to be pumped into the die casting machine. Because the quality of the die castings is directly affected by the melting of the alloy, the molten metal must be carefully monitored. New ingots (alloys formed by adding various elements to pure aluminum), recycled ingots (rough burrs, defective goods, etc.), factory chips, and scrap are all used to make molten metal.
Materials are placed in the melting furnace after they have been thoroughly warmed and dried to avoid steam explosions. Before being utilized for casting, molten alloys are tested for chemical composition and molten metal cleanliness. If necessary, components are corrected by degassing and deoxidizing, or by employing silicon metal (Si) or Al-Cu mother alloy.
Melting of alloys can be done by either the centralized melting furnace method or the melting and holding furnace method:
- The centralized melting furnace technology melts all the molten metal needed in the plant in a centralized location distant from the die casting machines. The raw materials are supplied from the top and pre heated and melted by the furnace’s exhaust heat. Because there is no function to hold molten metal, a holding furnace is employed in conjunction with the die casting process. Molten metal is transported from the melting furnace to the holding furnace using a ladle (a container for carrying molten metal).
- In the melting and holding furnace system, a furnace with melting and molten metal holding capabilities is mounted next to the die casting machine. The melting and holding furnace has a melting chamber, a holding chamber, and a pumping port (outlet) and is suitable for small-scale production.
The temperature and quality of the molten metal are monitored during the melting process. Aluminum alloys have a molten metal temperature of between 670 and 760°C. After melting is complete, the molten metal is treated with flux or inert gas to remove impurities (oxide film, etc.) and hydrogen gas. To check for inclusions, the K-mold method is used: molten metal is cast into an aluminum mold, then the resulting strip-shaped test piece is divided into 5 or 6 pieces with a hammer, etc. On the fracture surface, it is determined how many inclusions develop. The evaluation method is based on the total number of inclusions that appear on all fracture surfaces, divided by the number of specimens. This value is called the K value, and is classified into ranks A to E to determine the quality of the molten metal.
|Rank||K-value||Judgment of cleanliness||Judgment of casting availability|
|A||<0.1||Clean molten metal||Can be cast|
|B||0.1-0.5||Nearly clean molten metal||Can be cast, but should be treated if possible|
|C||0.5-1.0||Slightly dirty molten metal||Needs to be processed|
|D||1.0-10||Dirty molten metal||Needs to be processed|
|E||>10||Significantly dirty molten metal||Needs to be processed|
2. Casting work
Casting work entails the following processes: mold cleaning, application of mold release agent and lubricant, mold clamping, pouring, injection and filling, curing, mold opening, mold release, and removal. During the casting work, the mold is initially cleaned of casting burrs and mold release agent residues with a brush or an air blow. The mold is then closed after applying mold releasing agent to the cavity surfaces and lubricant to the plunger tip and injection sleeve. Molten metal is poured from the holding furnace into the injection sleeve, which is subsequently injected and filled into the mold cavity in the cold chamber machine. No pouring action is necessary in hot chamber machines. The die cast cannot be removed until the molten metal in the mold cavity hardens and reaches a temperature that allows it to be removed. This is referred to as “curing,” and the time spent doing so is referred to as “curing time.” When the curing process is complete, the mold is opened and any puller cores are removed. Finally, the ejection pin releases the die cast from the mold, and the ejection device or robot removes the die cast from the mold.
- Post-treatment work
In the post-treatment work, unnecessary parts are removed and surface treatments are done.
In inspection, good and defective products are sorted out by comparing them with specifications and quality standards.
The Benefits of Die Casting
Die casting is used to make car parts, machine parts, decorative pieces, and other oem die casting parts. The consumer who uses oem die casting parts has several features, advantages, and benefits.
Precision and Complexity
It provides more dimensionally precise products with complex shapes than other casting methods. Manufacturers are capable of producing a wide variety of products.
In a short period of time, die casting produces large quantities of mostly finished products. The cutting procedure is quite simple.
Wall thickness and strength
It has the advantage of being thinner than other casting processes and can be used for castings as well as plastics. It is possible to produce products that are stronger than molded products.
Appearance and Dimensional Stability
The casting surface is smooth and dimensionally stable.
A single mold can produce thousands to hundreds of thousands of castings. This allows for a large supply of the same product in large quantities.
Thin-walled and lightweight
Thin-wall die casting methods have evolved in response to the trend toward reduced weight and are now widely used.
This technology is becoming more popular.
The excellent surface finish of castings allows for plating, painting, and other surface treatments, and it is simple to do so.
For cost-effective assembly, bosses or studs for connection with other parts can be provided.
Insert (cast metal fitting)
Different metals and non-ferrous metals can be cast and die in precisely the right positions.
When these advantages of die casting are utilized to their full potential, significant cost and labor reductions can be gained. In addition to the aforementioned benefits, the high quality of die castings can give superior quality and performance compared to other casting products. Furthermore, the alloying elements, such as iron, aluminum, and the great tolerance for other components, make it exceptionally easy to recycle. It has a number of advantages, including helping to conserve resources and preserve the environment.
Common OEM Parts With Die Casting
Die casting technology, which uses molds to make high-precision parts, is a processing technique that is not only widely utilized but also improving. This technology is frequently used in important and necessary industries, such as automotive and ship parts, due to its capacity to mass produce. Let’s have a look at the kind of parts that can be manufactured using this technology.
- ENGINE ACCESSORIES
In machines, the engine is a device that converts energy from fuels into mechanical energy through the combustion of gas in a sealed cylinder. This forces the piston to work, which is the most fundamental principle. Moreover, the body of the engine is the framework of the engine, as well as the installation foundation of the engine’s institutions and systems. The engine’s main parts and accessories are both inside and outside the body, and they are subjected to varying loads. The body must therefore be strong and rigid enough. Blocks are made up largely of cylinder blocks, cylinder lines, cylinder heads, and cylinder gaskets.
- TRANSMISSION HOUSING
Loads are supported by transmission housings. They’re usually built out of a die-cast aluminum alloy with specialized molds. It possesses high strength, high pressure resistance, low hot brittleness, good mechanical qualities, and machinability, as well as good castability and pressure resistance, which makes it perfect for producing large-scale die castings with irregular forms and more complicated shapes.
- WATER PUMP HOUSING
The automobile has a big water circulation system in the cylinder, which is made up of many cooling circulation pipes connecting to the radiator in the front. An automobile’s water pump circulates coolant from the water tank to continuously remove heat from the engine.
- MACHINERY PARTS
Machinery is composed of mechanical parts, which are the indivisible parts of machinery. In the operation of machinery, the quality of mechanical parts plays an important role, so it is crucial to choose high-quality mechanical parts. These OEM die casting parts include custom brackets, aluminum die casting parts for wiper systems, filter systems, engine systems, and other systems, die bases; aluminum mounting brackets; and seat spare parts.
- LIGHTING PARTS
Lighting parts are manufactured by OEM die casting for both household and commercial use. Manufacturers offer aluminum die casting services for the production of outdoor and indoor lighting products such as street light housings, LED lamps, ceiling lamps, bulb lamps, and barrel lamps, among other things.
- TELECOM PARTS
Aluminum alloy is the primary material used in the manufacture of telecommunication parts due to its low density, high mechanical strength, good shock absorption performance, good casting properties, ease of plating and spraying, and good thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and oxidation resistance. As mobile telecommunications systems progress to higher frequencies, metal components, which are a fundamental component of RF devices, will become smaller, lighter, and more integrated. They’re most commonly found in telecommunications base stations. Telecommunication parts include Telecommunication Cover, Telecommunication Cavity, Aluminum Casting Radiator, and Heat Sink Housing.
- Electric Vehicle Parts
New Energy Vehicles, or BEVs, are electric vehicles powered by batteries. There are three main parts: the traction motor, the battery pack, and the electrical control units. Electric vehicle oem die casting parts include motor housings, battery cases, DC-AC converter enclosures, battery control ECU enclosures, on-board chargers, HV/EV ECU enclosures, and others.
- Furniture Parts
Die castings of aluminum and zinc are widely used in furniture parts such as hinges, handles, knobs, armrests, and brackets. Die cast furniture parts are relatively simple and plain compared with industrial products. Usually they don’t have tight tolerance fittings, as it saves on post-machining. The surface finish of such die-cast furniture parts is always required while they are for decorative purposes, such as mirror polishing, electroplating, painting, and powder coating, etc.
- Electronic Equipment
Enclosures are often required for both protection and heat dissipation in electronic packaging. Aluminum has a thermal conductivity that is at least three orders of magnitude larger than most plastics and twice that of steel, allowing it to provide both the strength and thermal qualities required for electronics packaging. Aluminum cases for electronic equipment benefit from high pressure die casting’s ability to create thin walls and incorporate complex features.
Net-shaped and near-net-shaped housings, as well as parts for electrical and electronic control panels, servo motors, flow meters, scales, radar detectors, and PC board assemblies, are examples of electronic parts. Die cast enclosures, housings, and electrical die casting components must frequently be tough, resilient, lightweight, waterproof, dust-proof, and EMI shielded.
Toys made from die-cast metal are heavier than those made from plastic because the mold is not made from plastic but from metal, which is why they are called die-cast toys. This process is still used today with some toys, especially high-end collectibles, even though it dates back to the early 20th century.